インクルージョン概念の整理

Shore, Lynn. M. et al. “Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research”, Journal of Management, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 1262-1289.

「インクルージョン(包摂)とは何か?」という問いに対する答えは、論者や研究領域によって多様で、やや混乱に満ちている。それぞれがインクルージョンに異なる意味合いを付与しているのに、互いの違いやズレを確認しないまま、インクルージョンを語り、それを目指すといったことが起きている。

上記したShore論文では、職場におけるインクルージョンに限定されてはいるものの、これまでなされてきたさまざまな定義が紹介されている。それらをODTにおける二つの重要概念に紐づけていくという手際の良さ(というよりか強引さ)をどう評価するかは別として、それぞれの論者が特定の定義に至るまでのプロセスを確認するため、もとの論文にあたってみる必要がありそうなので、以下抜粋しておく。

インクルージョン(包摂)とは何か?

Pelled, Ledford, and Mohrman (1999: 1014) defined inclusion as “the degree to which an emlopyee is accepted and treated as an insider by others in a work system.”

Roberson (2006: 217) argued that inclusion refers to “the removal of obstacles to the full participation and contribution of employees in organizations”

Miller (1998: 151) similarly described inclusion as the extent to which diverse individuals “are allowed to participate and are enabled to contribute fully.”

Likewise, Lirio, Lee, Williams, Haugen, and Kossek (2008: 433) referred to inclusion as “when individuals feel a sense of belonging, and inclusive behaviors such as eliciting and valuing contributions from all employees are part of the daily life in the organization.”

Furthermore, Avery, McKay, Wilson, and Volpone (2008: 6) stated that inclusion is “the extent to which employees believe their organizations engage in efforts to involve all employees in the mission and operation of the organization with respect to their individual talents.”

Wasserman, Gallegos, and Ferdman (2008: 176) define a culture of inclusion as existing when “people of all social identity groups [have] the opportunity to be present, to have their voices heard and appreciated, and to engage in core activities on behalf of the collective.”

Finally, Holvino, Ferdman, and Merrill-Sands (2004: 249) define a multicultural, inclusive organization as “one in which the diversity of knowledge and perspectives that members of different groups bring to the organization has shaped its strategy, its work, its management and operating systems, and its core values and norms for success.”

二つの特徴

Two general themes are apparent in these definitions that are consistent with ODT. First, there is a theme of belongingness, as indicated by some key words and phrases in the above definitions such as “accepted,” “insider,” and “sense of belonging.”

The second theme of uniqueness is indicated by key phrases such as “valuing contributions from all employees,” “contribute fully,” “individual talents,” and “to have their voices heard and appreciated.”

コメントを残す

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。